You can easily make money online now through freelancing. Since you’re trading time for money, your focus will be on finding a few quality clients who pay you well. However, if you’re just starting out, you might need to take on a lot of clients who pay you less to build your portfolio. Freelancing gigs can be diverse making it one of those money making ideas almost anyone can do. Graphic design, programming, consulting, and accounting are a few examples of the types of roles you can do as a freelancer.
Now, you can enjoy the income potential of being a landlord without the headaches! With a $500 investment, you can open a portfolio at Fundrise. You directly invest in properties located across the United States. Historical annual returns are between 8% and 12% which is similar to investing in the stock market. The main difference is that you don’t have the daily market swings.
These ways of making extra money cover a wide range in terms of compensation and prestige. Check out the options to see what could work for you, keeping tabs on a projected per-hour rate so you can see what would be worth your time. The list is loosely arranged by 1. jobs requiring more skill or expertise, 2. gigs needing less and 3. things you can sell. And if you think of any good options I missed, please let me know in the comments.
Earny connects with your Google and Amazon accounts to get you money back on purchases if there was a price drop. They will track your email inbox for receipts. If they find a lower price for the item you purchased, they will request a refund on your behalf. Earny takes 25% of whatever the refund price is and credit the rest back to your card. The app understands each individual store's refund policy and how to claim the difference, so it does all the hoop-jumping for you. Earny currently tracks approximately 50 stores, including Amazon, Walmart, Target, and Nordstrom. You can find the full list of eligible retailers here.
Ready to enter the ecommerce fray? Why not sell your own stuff. Of course, along with selling your own stuff on your own website comes a whole slew of both responsibilities and technical configuration and requirements. For starters, you'll need a website and a hosting account. You'll also need a merchant account (sure you can use Stripe or PayPal). Then you'll need to design that site, build a sales funnel, create a lead magnet and do some email marketing.
Accommodate Multiple Forms of Payment: Many deal-seekers carry cash, but you want to accommodate every potential buyer. So, in the days leading up to the event, consider purchasing a point-of-sale system that can accept credit cards. Square is a popular and relatively cost-effective option: it doesn’t cost anything upfront and bundles credit card processing fees into its own per-transaction fees, resulting in a net expense of 2.75% for most transactions (net of $97.25 for every $100 charged). This is a small price to pay to capture the ever-growing cashless consumer demographic. On the day before the sale, visit the bank and grab $100 in small bills and coin rolls to ensure you’ll have enough change for buyers who do prefer cash.

27. Sponsored/paid posts – Many blogs publish sponsored and paid posts. Sponsored posts are basically just posts about a specific brand, product or service. A company will pay you to publish an article about it. It’s similar with other paid posts as well. Your basically selling the spot for the article on your site. If you decide to take this route, you’ll want to build your traffic before you will get many offers.
Drive for Uber or Lyft: If you're in a locale where you can find Uber or Lyft (or even one of the many competitors around the world such as China's Didi), you could easily make a respectable income. The hours are flexible and you can work as you see fit, making it perfect even if you currently have full-time employment but are looking to make some money on the side. 
Even if your car rarely goes unused long enough to rent it out to a visiting driver, you can still potentially “rent it out” by turning your vehicle into a rolling advertisement. The site freecarmedia.com pairs car owners with advertisers who are looking for mobile billboards. Drivers can earn up to $400 per month by agreeing to have their vehicle wrapped with a vinyl decal (called a car wrap) provided by an advertiser. Generally, your program will last anywhere from 6 to 24 months, and you get paid for following your normal driving routine.
Try pet sitting.[24] Find friends who are going out of town and offer to take care of their pets while they’re gone. Professional boarding places tend to be very expensive (not to mention impersonal and intimidating for a pet), so your cozy little house or apartment may seem like a very nice alternative. Around the holidays, pet-boarders fill up quickly, meaning you can probably charge more.

This comes back to the implementation of sales funnels within an ecommerce environment. In fact, much of what people think about traditional ecommerce stores taking months or even years to build and costing a small fortune simply isn't true. Dave Woodward, co-founder of ClickFunnels, says that over one-third of their two-comma club (members who have a sales funnel making a million or more per year) are ecommerce entrepreneurs. 
Be someone’s virtual assistant. Not all administrative support staff work on site and take notes in-person at meetings. You can also help an executive from the comfort of your home by scheduling appointments, typing letters, ordering supplies, and preparing presentations. Zirtual may be able to connect you with someone who needs your help, though it may ask for a fee to get you started. You could also send some emails to companies near you offering your services.  

Research. You need to know what others are selling before you decide what wares you will offer. Lots of people sell handmade items, but those who work hard to make their items unique in some way are the ones who truly stand out. After you’ve decided on a product, check out the other sellers on Etsy and find what they’re offering, and then figure out how you can do it differently.

Get paid for your opinions. Taking surveys online can be a relatively quick way to earn enough to afford a few extras. Harris Poll Online, for example, awards points for the completion of online surveys, which can take between five and 25 minutes to fill out. Survey takers accumulate points and can redeem them for gift cards from retailers such as Amazon and Starbucks. Other online outfits that will pay you to take surveys include SurveyClub, Global Test Market and Swagbucks. There's no cost to sign up.

*The Ellevest The Penny Hoarder promotional offer is valid from July 25, 2018 to December 31, 2018 for the first 1,000 new clients of Ellevest who enter through this designated landing page. Clients who enroll and fund their non-retirement account will receive $25 added to their highest priority goal in their Ellevest account. Clients who enroll and fund their retirement account will receive a $25 Amazon gift card which can be redeemed by visiting www.amazon.com. Please review Amazon.com Gift Card Terms and Conditions prior to redemption. Ellevest is not responsible for lost Amazon Gift Cards. Ellevest’s processing time for depositing $25 into a client’s Ellevest account or delivery of a $25 Amazon gift card may be up to 60 days.


Ask your parents if they'll pay you for doing more chores. You're probably already expected to do chores around the house and help out your family for free. If you need a little extra pocket change, however, ask your parents if there's something else you can do for a small fee. For instance, maybe your mom really hates folding laundry and would be willing to pay $5 a week for you to do it instead. Whatever it is, let your parents know you're willing to take on more work for a bit of allowance.
This can either be done locally or through an online service like Fiverr. Resumes are something that people can be very insecure and self-conscious about, which means there is always a demand for services that will help spruce them up. Holly Hanna from The Work at Home Woman wrote a really useful article on How to Make Money from Home with Resume Writing.
Anyone who has ever googled “work from home” or “make money from home” knows that the web is overflowing with sites proclaiming you can make thousands from the comfort of your living room, most of the time requiring you to first buy a book, CD, or DVD to learn how.  Since there is so much of this garbage out there, it can be frustrating looking for legitimate ways to work from home.  Below are some reasonable ideas to consider.
I have a personal blog that I use for journaling. I became good enough that I opened my own business as a social media consultant. I’m now making a decent amount of extra money. I am also a photographer with a lot of graphics program experience, so I make a little more by doing graphic design, photography, and even digital enhancement. You don’t have to be the best at something in order for it to be profitable; you just have to put in the work and be better or cheaper than other people out there. However, it IS work.
I collected cans in my teens and made a few extra bills for spending money. If this idea is of interest, you might be motivated to hear the true story of Maisie Devore who was able to raise money collecting cans for a community swimming pool.  She was able to save $73,000 over three decades and is still collecting. Whoa! Learn more about this idea by reading my collecting aluminum cans for cash post.
You must be at least 21 years old, have at least one year of licensed driving experience in the U.S. (three years if you’re under 23 years old), have a valid driver’s license and pass a background check. Also, your car must be a four-door, seat at least four passengers (excluding the driver), be registered in-state and be covered by in-state insurance.
Español: ganar dinero, Deutsch: Geld verdienen, Português: Ganhar Dinheiro, Italiano: Fare Soldi, Nederlands: Geld verdienen, Français: gagner de l'argent facilement et rapidement, Русский: много зарабатывать, 中文: 赚钱, Čeština: Jak vydělat peníze, Bahasa Indonesia: Menghasilkan Uang, العربية: ربح المال, Tiếng Việt: Kiếm tiền, 日本語: お金を稼ぐ, 한국어: 돈 버는 방법, Türkçe: Nasıl Para Kazanılır, हिन्दी: पैसे बनाएँ (Kaise Paise Kamaye, Make Money)
Get creative and sell yourself! (it's not what you think) There's a company called Fiverr that connects people who can do things for other people. We all have talents and some of them can be quite marketable. For example, you could offer to design logos, create online content, put together scrapbooks, paint a pretty picture or even lending your voice to a podcast! Gigs start at $5 but a person can make much, much more. Listen to my podcast episode with a successful Fiverr creator and Sign up with Fiverr today.

As the digital world evolves, so does our currency. What seemed like a novelty yesterday will ultimately become the preferred medium for money. In fact, studies show that non-cash payments have gone up 5.3 percent per year between 2012 through 2015 and a Gallop poll found that 10 percent of people claimed to use cash as their preferred payment method in 2016 (down from 19 percent in 2011). 
Take the hobby you love and do it for money...from home. The number of possible types of crafts you could make is endless--knitting, jewelry, scrapbook, pottery, ornaments, textiles and so on. To make this work, though, you have to not only create a quality product but you need to know how to market it. You can go the old-fashioned route and take your wares to craft shows and flea markets or use the Internet to expand your options. With online options like Etsy and eBay, your potential market is worldwide, but so is your competition. 
They say that a penny saved is a penny earned. Actually, when you consider that you pay taxes on every penny you earn, you really do make more money by saving than by increasing your income, especially if the extra income will increase your tax rate dramatically. For example, let's say you have a choice between saving $100 or earning an extra $100. If you pay 15% taxes, then when you earn an $100, you only get $85. But when you save $100 off of your existing budget, you keep it all. To sweeten the deal further, if you take advantage of compound interest as found in most savings accounts, over time you'll start making money on the amount saved plus previous interest paid on that amount saved. It'll be pennies at first, but eventually the amount will multiply exponentially.

The Ibotta app gives you cash back on the groceries you already buy. Some deals are brand specific, while others give you cash just for purchasing a certain type of item, like a loaf of bread from any brand. Choose your deals before you check out, then submit a picture of your receipt and get paid via Venmo, PayPal, or gift cards. Sign up with Ibotta to claim your $10 welcome bonus.


While publishing an ebook on Kindle isn’t the easiest way to make money, it can be a worthwhile way to make some extra cash if you love writing. You can create listicle books like ‘100 Ways to Save for a House.’ Listicles are generally easier to write and can be effective at driving traffic. To market your ebook, you can take advantage of Amazon’s Kindle Countdown Deals promotions where you can give your ebook away for free to help boost its ranking on the platform. Once the promotion is over, you can likely get a few sales from its higher rank. You can also promote your ebook on several platforms like ebook review websites and relevant niche blogs. To boost sales even more, you can create an audiobook version of your ebook on Audible.

But that tends to complicate things. Making some extra side hustle cash doesn't actually have to be that complicated. As someone who's been immersed in the field of online income generation for nearly two decades now, I can tell you that it takes some work. However, there are several clear paths forward. At the end of the day, it all boils down to what your goals are and just how much you're looking to automate your income.

The money is most certainly in the list. If you're at all interested in online marketing, setup email software and create a lead magnet that you can use in your sales funnel. Then, build up that list. It's often said that you can expect to earn about $1 per subscriber per month. If you have a list of 10,000 subscribers, that means you can earn roughly around $10,000 per month. You will need to deliver value and not pitch them on every email, but it is a very achievable goal in a short period.
Sell plasma. After passing an initial screening, you can usually sell your plasma for anywhere from $25 to $50 per donation. To qualify, you’ll have to stand in a long line or show up early, be willing to fill out a very personal questionnaire, and endure a painful needle prick or two. Still, selling plasma is a great way to raise money fast – if you can stand the hassle.

Most people think that you need to have a lot money stocked away before getting started with investing in real estate, but that isn’t true. In fact, you can start with with as little as $500 by using a platform like Fundrise. Fundrise allows investors of all types (beginners and experts alike) to invest directly in a real estate portfolio that’s managed by a team of professionals.

While cryptocurrency is still relatively new, it will ultimately become the standard. Bitcoin and Etherium might be the primary cryptocurrency platforms today, but the US Dollar will eventually become the Digital Dollar by leveraging the blockchain. You can take advantage of the current boom in cryptocurrency by trading it through platforms like eToro and Kraken, amongst many others. 
Need a little extra cash in a hurry? You can feel pressure when you need to make money fast, but you do have options for getting it done. These include selling items, doing odd jobs, and finding money in overlooked ways. These methods may or may not be reliable long-term, but when you need to make some money in a few hours or days, they are your best shot.
Did you know you can make money simply by owning a car? It's true, thanks to a company called Turo. Turo is a “car sharing marketplace.” Next time you're in a new city and need to rent a car–instead of using an airport car rental, you could use Turo and rent actual people's cars! (Similar to how Airbnb replaces hotels). Turo lets car owners earn money in three ways: local pickup (renting your car from your own driveway); delivering your car to local places; and also by leaving your car somewhere to be picked up (such as at the airport). Earn Money with Turo.
You can potentially make even more money by offering to handle snow removal in the winter. Shoveling snow is often a homeowner's least favorite job, and there are many homeowners who simply cannot handle their own shoveling because of physical limitations. Typically, snow removal companies charge a flat fee for the winter, no matter how many times it snows. You can offer to remove snow a la carte, or you can copy the standard procedure and charge a flat rate. If you already own a snowblower (or can invest in one), this can help you speed up the snow removal process and allow you to take care of multiple neighbors each time it snows. (A snowblower will also save your back muscles!)
27. Sponsored/paid posts – Many blogs publish sponsored and paid posts. Sponsored posts are basically just posts about a specific brand, product or service. A company will pay you to publish an article about it. It’s similar with other paid posts as well. Your basically selling the spot for the article on your site. If you decide to take this route, you’ll want to build your traffic before you will get many offers.

Become a proofreader. All kinds of businesses hire professional proofreaders to look over their copy and content for errors before they publish. This side hustle is one that could work for nearly anyone since you can work from home provided you have a computer and an internet connection. You can find online proofreading jobs through websites like Indeed.com and FlexJobs.com

You can make extra money left and right if you just know where to look. If you like to ‘tinker’ I’d suggest going to the DIY section on Pinterest. You can find thousands of projects there to make, and you can sell them at a nice profit. You can make 20, 30, or 50 bucks at a time, in real money. Not the ‘get rich online now!’ stuff you see around. I make old teapots into lamps, or old shirts into aprons and sell them locally on Kijiji or Craigslist. It’s totally doable. 
Even if your car rarely goes unused long enough to rent it out to a visiting driver, you can still potentially “rent it out” by turning your vehicle into a rolling advertisement. The site freecarmedia.com pairs car owners with advertisers who are looking for mobile billboards. Drivers can earn up to $400 per month by agreeing to have their vehicle wrapped with a vinyl decal (called a car wrap) provided by an advertiser. Generally, your program will last anywhere from 6 to 24 months, and you get paid for following your normal driving routine.

This side hustle can easily become a full-time job! If you’ve got expertise in an area and think you can help small businesses near you, give this a shot. For instance, Ben and I know a lot about running Facebook advertising campaigns, so we approached the owner of our gym if he would let us design a few campaigns for him. And of course, he was thrilled to get the help! Here’s a useful 18 Step Checklist for Becoming a Small Business Consultant.
the problem with “CashCrate” is that the amount of money that u get out of it is VERY slim.. and even to get that VERY slim portion of money you have to complete a lot of surveys and to cash-in on the money you earned u must make over $20, trust me. i tried it, it took me over 6-12 months to get the cash.. i used the site like if my life depended on it. it was very hard.
Persistence and Commitment. You’ll need to have a good amount of persistence while pursuing freelance writing gigs. This business is subjective, and while one person may love your writing, another may not. Do your best to always produce good, solid copy and hold on to your commitment to do the best you can for your clients. Just by committing to do those two things, you’ll be miles ahead of your competition.

“Great list! I especially like the tutoring stuff. I’m good at Math that’s why I tutored once for my godparent’s 8th grader. I had fun with the her and her mum cooks the most delicious brownies. I don’t think I can donate a plasma or be a human guinea pig. But maybe you should add herb and vegetable planting. This job doesn’t require too many technicalities and is so far the easiest thing to do. There’s a method called square foot gardening for those who don’t have big spaces. It’s so simple to do and gardening in small boxes requires small maintenance. There is plenty of information on the web about how to do so. Once you get growing you can even sell your fresh produce to your neighbours at a cheaper price, and earn some fast money in the process . P.S. I also would want to partake in an online survey. Some people recommended Cash Crate but I’m also curious about what happened to you?
If you’ve got expertise in a certain area, package up your knowledge into an online course and sell it. This has become a very popular business model for online entrepreneurs over the past several years. The two big websites that are used to sell online courses are Udemy and Teachable. Check out this awesome article by Regina on How to Create an Online Course that Sells.
Profit from you photos. If you’re skilled with a camera, you can turn your photos into cash by selling them to stock image sites, such as Shutterstock.com. If the photos you submit are accepted, they can be downloaded by Shutterstock’s subscribers and you can earn anywhere from 25 cents to $120 per image download. Other sites that accept photos from contributors include iStock, Dreamstime and Sqeeqee.

Furthermore, carefully consider your likely attendees, and what schedule would be attractive to them. For example, if you’re planning on teaching a tutoring class, you obviously couldn’t schedule it during school hours. Likewise, a class aimed at mothers of young children will either have to include babysitting services or be scheduled at night, when they’re more likely to have help with the kids. Find the delicate balance of times that fit your prospective students’ schedules as well as your own.
DeWitt turns salvaged parts from old TVs and VCRs into artsy necklaces, earrings and figures. Colleen Jordan uses 3D printing to create her necklaces called wearable planters. Don't be discouraged, Shapeways 3D printing company can get you started with their simple apps so you can easily customize your own designs with a click of a mouse, anything from a wedding band in rose gold, a vase in ceramic or your own bobble head printed in full color. All for the purpose of generating sales.

Start analyzing your decisions from the perspective of a firm. In economics, a firm's goal is simply to maximize profit. Well-run firms spend money only if they can expect to make more money from their investment, and they allocate their resources to the most profitable use. You're not a firm, of course, and you have other considerations, but if you make the majority of your time and money decisions by choosing the options that promise the highest return on investment, you'll likely earn more money, and that's good news for your shareholders (you and your family).
If you don’t want to deal with having a bounty on your head, then you can opt to fulfill other people’s bounties instead. The Sheriff’s office each town will usually have a Wanted poster hanging on the wall, and there’s usually a reward for retrieving the wanted person. Make sure to increase your Honor to boost the reward you get for completing bounties.
Pretty self-explanatory. You can start making money playing with dogs today using Rover. Rover lets you set your prices so you can charge fair rates for your services. In addition to walking, you can also offer doggy daycare, house sitting, and boarding through Rover. If you’d rather start your own thing, check out The Balance’s How to Start a Dog Walking Business.
Getting a raise is an excellent move because it doesn’t require you to trade more time for more money. You are putting in the same amount of time, but pulling a bigger paycheck. But, it’s always a bit tricky to ask for a raise when your company already has you at your current salary. You’ve got to make a strong argument you deserve the increase. Here are the top 10 mistakes to avoid when asking for a raise.
5. Create your own travel business. If you know a city or tourist destination particularly well, you can easily make an extra $1,000 by running a small travel business. Here is an example. I have a friend who loves scuba diving. He knows a few locations very well. Someone asked if he would act as a guide, and my friend had the bright idea to start doing it all the time. He started putting together scuba vacation packages, and now that's his full-time job. He offers a full pre-paid package that includes lodging, meals, and scuba equipment, plus a markup for him.

I have tried to sign up & complete cash for surveys in the past and then felt like I was being led down a rabitt’s hole, going from one “skip” and/or “submit” to another without ever, seemingly, actually completing the entire process.  So, when I saw CashCrate recommended in ptmoney.com, I thought it was going to be more straight forward, but, alas, no, I entered the rabitt’s hole once again, coming up for air only after an entire hour spent hopping, skipping, and jumpring all over the place, netting 25 cents in earnings!  Has this been anyone else’s experience and what has been done to remedy the situation?  It seems like there must exist an insider’s trick or, at least, know-how that I am missing. 
Read course reviews for popular courses. Look at the mediocre and low star reviews, what is it about the course that people want more of, use those weaknesses to your advantage. If everyone is complaining about the lack of the same thing, you should focus on adding it to your course. Be sure to look at what people loved about the course to ensure you also include favorable features. When creating an online course, look at the list of topic covered in it to ensure you include all of those topics in yours as well.
Writing roles can come in any industry. Businesses need writers to create sales and marketing copy as they create and update online stores. They need writers who can provide clean, clear instructions for a digital manual (which falls under “technical writing”) or just good, valuable content. Full-time writing jobs in advertising, marketing, branded content (B2B and B2C) and sales are definitely available, because businesses are always changing and updating their on their websites and other media where branding and messaging takes place.
Need more ideas on how to make money online? Another strategy is using webinars to market your product, service, or course. I’ve done webinars to promote my financial planning practice and to drum up interest in my online course for financial advisors. With a webinar, you’re basically offering a lot of tips and advice for free — usually in a live format. At the end though, you pitch your paid product or service with the goal of securing a few deals.

If you’re trained in a marketable skill — like graphic or web design, SEO writing, or video animation — to the point where you can bang out the work in your sleep, you can make a pretty quick buck with it on Fiverr. Whether it’s the best long-term strategy for your freelance career is debatable – and it’s one of the least lucrative gig economy side hustles out there – but that’s not the point; the point is that there’s the potential for earning money quickly.

With Shopkick, there’s no purchase necessary to earn cash back. In order to make money with Shopkick, all you have to do is download the app, enable your location services, and start earning kicks. You’ll earn points just by walking into a store, and even more points for scanning items or making a purchase. Payout comes in the form of gift cards to your favorite stores, including Walmart, Target, Sephora, and Starbucks to name a few.

Monetizing your blog through affiliate marketing is usually faster than trying to create your own information product to sell. Or monetizing with Google Adsense. You can also add products to sell on your blog using Oberlo. To make money fast, you’ll need to drive a ton of traffic back to your blog. You can do this by writing multiple pieces of blog content every day. You’ll need to write at least 1500 words per post. Share the content on social media using hashtags to improve your chances of being found. Don’t forget to optimize for search. Once you take care of all these things, you’ll be a step closer to earning money online.

You can create your blog using a free platform from WordPress.org, but you’ll need to pay a small amount – as little as $4 per month – to have your blog hosted. Try GoDaddy.com, which can provide a domain name for your site, email addresses, database storage and other Web hosting services. To make money, you can use the free Google AdSense service to display advertisements on your site. The amount you’re paid varies by ad and usually depends on how many people see it. There's also what's called affiliate marketing, in which you earn a commission (usually less than 10%) whenever someone clicks on an ad on your site and purchases a product. The Amazon Associates affiliate program allows you to advertise the retailer’s products on your site, or try affiliate networks such as CJ Affiliate or ShareASale that work with thousands of companies. Depending on how much time you put into your blog and how many people visit it, you could be making a few hundred dollars each month within a year.


You must be at least 21 years old, have at least one year of licensed driving experience in the U.S. (three years if you’re under 23 years old), have a valid driver’s license and pass a background check. Also, your car must be a four-door, seat at least four passengers (excluding the driver), be registered in-state and be covered by in-state insurance.
 @LauraGesicki I disagree Laura. Technology can only let an individual go so far with design. It all starts with the thought process and possessing the “designer eye.” This “eye” cannot be taught, but is rather a natural talent and ability to recognize good design from bad. Technology is merely a tool to display our ideas. Nothing beats natural talent and creativity.
Thank you for the input. I think your probably right….the purse selling would be a huge challenge. Thank you for the suggestions 1 & 2. My husband owns a complete auto care business and we are leaning towards purchasing vehicles from individual sellers to resell. That may be the more certain route to take. We have access to auto technicians and auto equipment etc. I was kinda trying to do something myself, I’ll get back to brain storming!
You’d do most of your work in a home garden, but you’ll have to spend your weekends away from home. If you love the idea of selling your home-grown produce, but can’t swing being out of the house on weekends, consider selling to friends, family, and neighbors instead. Almost everyone prefers the taste of a fresh picked tomato to a store bought one.
First off, I’m a blogger so it seems wrong not to mention it, but more importantly, it’s a legitimate way to make money. It’s quite possibly the least straight-forward way on this list, but it’s very doable and it’s also quite possibly the funnest way on this list. I love blogging and I know hundreds of bloggers who feel the same. So let’s talk about making money blogging and what it really means.
Donating plasma can actually work out better than selling your blood.  It takes longer to donate plasma because they will put your red blood cells back in your system. The upside is that you can donate plasma as much as twice a week and you can make anywhere from $40-$60 per donation. You can make that $100 in less than a week if you can stomach the needle.
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